Paper Prototyping: The fast and easy way to design and refine user interface
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Welcome to PaperPrototyping!

There are three types of resources here: online articles, published papers, and books related to usability. The articles are written for a practitioner audience and may be the best starting point for those who are getting started in paper prototyping. The papers have been published in the proceedings for various conferences. Papers tend to be scientific in nature and are more suitable for those interested in research.

Got a reference that should be included here? Email it to Carolyn Snyder.

[* Indicates that full text is available to ACM SIGCHI members. Non-members may purchase access to individual papers or a subscription to the ACM Portal to Computing Literature.]

Articles

Klee, M. 2000. Five paper prototyping tips. Available from User Interface Engineering.

* Rettig, M. 1994. Prototyping for tiny fingers. Communications of the ACM (April). 37(4):21-27.

* Rudd, J., K. Stern, and S. Isensee. 1996. Low vs. high-fidelity prototyping debate. Interactions January:76-85.

Scanlon, T. 1998. Paper prototypes: still our favorite. Available from User Interface Engineering.

Snyder, C. 2001. Paper prototyping. In IBM developerWorks.

Snyder, C. 1996. Using paper prototypes to manage risk. Available from User Interface Engineering.

Papers

* Buchenau, M., and J. F. Suri. 2000. Experience prototyping. Symposium on designing interactive systems.In Conference Proceedings on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, and Techniques, pp. 424-433. New York: ACM Press.

Catani, M. B., and D. W. Biers. 1998. Usability evaluation and prototype fidelity: Users and usability professionals. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, pp. 1331-1335. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

* Chandler, C. D., G. Lo, and A. K. Sinha. 2002. Multimodal theater: Extending low fidelity paper prototyping to multimodal applications. In Extended Abstracts: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '02, Student Poster (Minneapolis), pp. 874-875.New York: ACM Press.

* Coble, J. M., J. Karat, and M. G. Kahn. 1997. Maintaining a focus on user requirements throughout the development of clinical workstation software. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '97 (Atlanta), pp. 170-177. New York: ACM Press.

* Grady, H. M. 2000. Web site design: A case study in usability testing using paper prototypes. In Proceedings of IEEE Professional Communication Society International Professional Communication Conference and Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM International Conference on Computer Documentation: Technology & Teamwork (Cambridge, MA), pp. 39-45. New York: IEEE.

* Hakim, J., and T. Spitzer. 2000. Effective prototyping for usability approaches to prototyping. In Proceedings of IEEE Professional Communication Society International Professional Communication Conference and Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM International Conference on Computer Documentation: Technology & Teamwork (Cambridge, MA), pp. 47-54. New York: IEEE.

* Hertzum, M., N. E. Jacobsen, and R. Molich. 2002. Usability inspections by groups of specialists: Perceived agreement in spite of disparate observations. In Extended Abstracts: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '02 (Minneapolis), pp. 662-663. New York: ACM Press.

* Hong, J. I., F. C. Li, J. Lin, and J. A. Landay. 2001. End-user perceptions of formal and informal representations of Web sites. In Extended Abstracts: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '01 (Seattle), pp. 385-386. New York: ACM Press.

Kavanaugh, R., and J. Soety. 2000. Prototyping using Visio. Usability Interface 7(1).

* Kyng, M. 1994. Scandinavian design: Users in product development. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '94 (Boston), pp. 3-9. New York: ACM Press.

* Lafreniere, D. 1996. CUTA: A simple, practical, low-cost approach to task analysis. Interactions Sept/Oct:35-39.

Leone, P., D. Gillihan, and T. Rauch. 2000. Web-based prototyping for user sessions: Medium-fidelity prototyping. In Proceedings of the Society for Technical Communications 44th Annual Conference, pp. 231-234. Toronto: STC.

McGrew, J. 2001. Shortening the human computer interface design cycle: A parallel design process based on the genetic algorithm. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting (Minneapolis/St. Paul), pp. 603-606. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

* Muller, M. J., and R. Carr. 1996. Using the CARD and PICTIVE participatory design methods for collaborative analysis. In Field methods casebook for software design, eds D. Wixon and J. Ramey. New York: Wiley.

* Muller, M. J., and S. Kuhn. 1993.Communications of the ACM Volume 36, Issue 6 (June 1993): Special issue on graphical user interfaces: the next generation participatory design, pp. 245-28. New York: ACM Press.

* Muller, M. J. 2001.Layered participatory analysis: New developments in the CARD technique. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '01 (Seattle), pp. 90-97. New York: ACM Press.

Muller, M. J., J. Hallewell Haslwanter, and T. Dayton. 1997. Participatory practices in the software lifecycle. In Handbook of human-computer interaction. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

* Nielsen, J., and T. K. Landauer. 1993. A mathematical model of the finding of usability problems. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: INTERCHI '93 (Amsterdam), pp. 206-213. New York: ACM Press.

* Novick, D. G. 2000. Testing documentation with "low-tech" simulation. In Proceedings of IEEE Professional Communication Society International Professional Communication Conference and Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM International Conference on Computer Documentation: Technology & Teamwork (Cambridge, MA), pp. 55-68. New York: IEEE.

* Ovaska, S., and K. J. Raiha. 1995. Parallel design in the classroom. In Extended Abstracts: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '95 (Denver), pp. 264-265. New York: ACM Press.

Säde, S., and K. Battarbee. 2001. The third dimension in paper prototypes. In Design by people for people: Essays on usability, ed R. Branaghan, pp. 203-212. Chicago: UPA.

Säde, S., M. Nieminen, and S. Riihiaho. 1998. Testing usability with 3D paper prototypes—Case Halton system. Applied Ergonomics 29(1):67-73.

* Schumann, J., T. Strothotte, S. Laser, and A. Raab. 1996. Assessing the effect of non-photorealistic rendered images in CAN. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '96 (Vancouver), pp. 35-41. New York: ACM Press.

* Spool, J., and W. Schroeder. 2001. Testing websites: Five users is nowhere near enough. In Extended Abstracts: Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '01 (Seattle), pp. 285-286. New York: ACM Press.

Tullis, T. S. 1990. High-fidelity prototyping throughout the design process. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 34th Annual Meeting, p. 266. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

Uceta, F. A, M. A. Dixon, and M. L. Resnick. 1998. Adding interactivity to paper prototypes. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 42nd Annual Meeting (Chicago), pp. 506-511. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

Virzi, R. A. 1989. What can you learn from a low-fidelity prototype? In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 33rd Annual Meeting (Atlanta), pp. 224-228. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

* Virzi, R. A. 1992. Refining the test phase of usability evaluation: How many subjects is enough? In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 36th Annual Meeting, pp. 457-468. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

* Virzi, R. A., J. L. Sokolov, and D. Karis. 1996. Usability problem identification using both low- and hi-fidelity prototypes. In Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '96 (Vancouver), pp. 236-243. New York: ACM Press.

Wiklund, M. E, C. W. Thurrott, and J. S. Dumas. 1992. Does the fidelity of software prototypes affect the perception of usability? In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 36th Annual Meeting, pp. 399-403. Santa Monica, CA: HFES.

* Wilson, S., and P. Johnson. 1995. Empowering users in a task-based approach to design. In Conference Proceedings on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, and Techniques, pp. 25-31. New York: ACM Press.

Books

Barnum, C. M. 2002. Usability testing and research. New York: Pearson Education.

Beyer, H., and K. Holtzblatt. 1998. Contextual design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Donoghue, K. 2002. Built for use. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dumas, J., and J. C. Redish. 1999. A practical guide to usability testing, rev ed. Portland, OR: Intellect.

Hackos, J. T., and J. C. Redish. 1998. User and task analysis for interface design. New York: Wiley.

Landauer, T. K. 1995. The trouble with computers: Usefulness, usability, and productivity. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Mayhew, D. 1999. The usability engineering lifecycle: A practitioner's handbook for user interface design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Nielsen, J. 1994. Usability engineering. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Nielsen, J., R. Molich, C. Snyder, and S. Farrell. 2001. E-commerce user experience. Fremont, CA: Nielsen Norman Group.

Norman, D. A. 2002. The design of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

Preece, J., H. Rogers, and H. Sharp. 2002. Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction. New York: Wiley.

Rosson, M. B., and J. M. Carroll. 2002. Usability engineering: Scenario-based development of human-computer interaction. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Rubin, J. 1994. Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests. New York: Wiley.

Schrage, M. 1999. Serious play: How the world's best companies simulate to innovate. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Schuler, D., and A. Namioka (eds). 1993. Participatory design: Principles and practices. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Edbaum Associates.

Spool, J. M., T. Scanlon, W. Schroeder, C. Snyder, and T. DeAngelo. 1999. Web site usability: A designer's guide. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Weiss, S. 2002. Handheld usability. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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Morgan Kaufmann

... In addition to solid, practical advice about how to create a paper prototype, this book also presents detailed information about how to prepare for, conduct, and interpret the results of this type of testing... This book will go on my short list of recommended usability texts.
--Mary Beth Rettger, The MathWorks, Inc.